Amendments of Constitution of India notes for Competitive Exams

Notes for Amendments of Constitution of India | Easy and quick notes for Important Amendments of Constitution of India | How to learn Indian polity for competitive exams

Candidates who are preparing for the various competitive exams like UPSC, SSC CGL, Railway Exams, State Civil Services exams, IAS etc need to study the polity section necessarily. So the candidates need to learn different topics in the polity section and one of the important topics are Amendments of Constitution of India. In Any competitive exams mentioned there are 10-12 questions being asked about the polity and from polity the amendments is also a very important topic. The important amendments of constitution of India according to exam point of view have been defined below. The candidates need to learn these amendments and these will be enough to get goo marks in the questions of this section.

Before moving on to the Amendments of Constitution of India, Candidates Firstly need to know the term Amendment, that what is Amendment?

In simple words amendment is modification of the constitution by adding or deleting or modifying which is already in the constitution.

Amendment of Indian Constitution is mentioned in PARTXX of constitution under article 368.

Indian constitution is of two types Rigid and Flexible. Indian Constitution is rigid means it is amended with the special majority. Indian constitution is flexible means it is amended with simple majority.

Important constitutional Amendments:

First Amendment 1951
  • Added 9th Schedule.
7th Amendment 1956
  • Necessitated on account of re-organisation of states on a linguistic basis.
8th Amendment 1959
  • Extended special provisions for reservations of seats for SCs, STs and Anglo-Indians in Lok Sabha and Legislative Assemblies for the period of 10 years from 1960-1970.
The 9th Amendment 1960
  • Gave effect to transfer certain territories to Pakistan following the 1958 Indo-Pak agreement.
The 10th Amendment 1961
  • Incorporated Dadra & Nagar Haveli as a UT (union territory).
12th Amendment 1962
  • Incorporated Goa, Daman & Diu as a UT
13th Amendment 1962
  • Created Nagaland as a state.
14th Amendment 1963
  • Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahe and Yanam, the former French territories were included in the I schedule as UT of Pondicherry.
18th Amendment 1966
  • Re-organised Punjab into Punjab, Haryana and UT of Chandigarh.
21st Amendment 1967
  • Included Sindhi as the Fifteenth Regional Language.
22nd Amendment 1969
  • Created a sub-state of Meghalaya and Assam.
23rd Amendment 1969
  • Extended the reservation of seats for SC/ST and nomination of Anglo-Indians for a further period of 10 years (till 1980).
26th Amendment 1971
  • Abolish the titles and special privileges of former rulers of princely states.
27th Amendment 1971
  • Established Manipur and Tripura as States and Mizoram and Arunachal Pradesh as UTs.
31st Amendment 1973
  • Increased the elective strength of Ls from 525 to 545. The upper limit of representatives of States went up from 500 to 525.
Thirty sixth Amendment 1975
  • Made Sikkim a State.
Thirty eighth Amendment 1975
  • Provided that the President can make a declaration of emergency, and the promulgation of ordinance the President Governors and the Administrative Heads of UTs would be final and could not be challenged in any court. It also authorized the President to declare different kinds of emergencies.
39th Amendment 1975
  • Placed beyond challenge in courts, the election of parliament of a person holding the office of PM or Speaker and election of the President and Prime minister.
42nd Amendment 1976
  • Provided supermacy of Parliament and gave primacy to Directive Principles over Fundamental Rights. It also added 10 Fundamental Duties. New words-Socialist, Secular and Unity and Integrity of the Nation, were added in the Preamble.
44th Amendment 1978
  • The Right to Property was deleted from the Part III. Article 352 was amended to provide Armed Rebellion as one of the circumstances for declaration of emergency.
45th Amendment 1985
  • Extended reservation of SC/ST by another 10 years (till 1990).
52nd Amendment 1985
  • Added the Tenth Schedule (regarding anti-defection).
53rd Amendment 1986
  • Mizoram was made a State.
55th Amendment 1986
  • Conferred statehood to Arunachal Pradesh.
56th Amendment 1987
  • Hindi version of the Constitution of India was accepted for all purposes. The UT of Goa, Daman and Diu was divided and Goa was made a State. Daman and Diu remained as a UT.
61st Amendment 1989
  • Reduced the voting age from 21 to 18 years for the LS as well as Assemblies.
61st Amendment 1989
  • Also extended reservation of seats for SC/ST till 2000 AD,
71st Amendment 1992
  • Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali were included in the VIII Schedule.
73rd Amendment 1993
  • (Panchayati Raj Bill) Provided among other things Gram Sabha in village, constitution of Pancahayt at the village and other levels, direct elections to all seats in Panchayats and reservation of seats for the SC and ST and fixing of tenure of 5 years for Panchayats.
74th Amendment 1993
  • (Nagar palika Bill) provides for, among other things, constitution of three types of municipalities, reservation of seats in every municipality for the SC and ST, women and the backward classes.
82nd Amendment 2000
  • Reinstalled the provision of reservation of SC and ST in matters related to promotion. Besides, the qualifying mark for passing an examination for them has also been lowered.
84th Amendment 2001
  • Extended freeze of Lok Sabha and State Assembly seats till 2026.
86th Amendment 2002
  • Makes education a fundamental right of children in the age group of 6-14 years.
87th Amendment 2003
  • Made the 2001 census the basis of delimitation of constituencies of the Lower House of Parliament (Lok Sabha) and State Assemblies (Vidhan Sabha).
91st Amendment 2003
  • Amended the Anti-Defection Law and also made a provision that the number of ministers in the Central & State Govts. Cannot be more than 15% of the strength of Lok Sabha & respected Vidhan Sabha.
92nd Amendment 2003
  • Bodo, Maithili, Santhali and Dogri added into the VIII Schedule.

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